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                Punjab is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states ofJammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and south east, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana.
              After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjab was divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh alongside the current state of Punjab.
               Punjab is the only Sikh majority state in India with Sikhs being close to 60% of the total population of the state.
                      Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial servicesmachine toolstextilessewing machinessports goodsstarchtourismfertilisersbicyclesgarments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Punjab also has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are located in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district. It is also known for the sports hub—Jalandhar
                    The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words panj (five) and āb(waters). Thus Panjāb roughly means "the land of five rivers".[4] The five rivers are the SutlejBeasRaviChenab and Jehlum (also spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab".The name is also sometimes spelled as "Panjab". While the Greeks already referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers, the name Punjab was given to the region by the Central Asian Turkic conquerors of India, and popularised by the Turco-Mongol Mughals.
During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Rupar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab. This civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was conquered by many ancient empires including the GandharaNandasMauryasShungasKushansGuptasPalasGurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis. The furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as JalandharSangrur and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
                 Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the AchaemenidsGreeksScythiansTurks, and Afghans. This resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines HinduBuddhistIslamicSikh and British influences.
                  The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month.
                The plains of Punjab do not have any thick forests. The only available flora are patches of grass, small bushes, and shrubs. In the southeastern part of Punjab and the areas of Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur and Multan, mangoes are grown. Other varieties of fruit grown in abundance are orangesapplesfigsquinces,almondspomegranatespeachesmulberriesapricots and plums
                       Punjab's GDP is 3.17 lakh crore  .Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India. The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice, sugar cane,fruits and vegetables are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket".It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur and Fazilka Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice.[40]The largest cultivated crop is wheat. Other important crops are ricecotton,sugarcanepearl milletmaizebarley and fruit. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful. In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally. The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991–92 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years. By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year.
According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India
Public transport in Punjab is provided by buses, auto rickshaws, Indian railways and an international rail connection to Pakistan (Samjhauta Express). The state has a large network of multimodal transportation systems.
Punjab has six civil airports. The Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsarand the Chandigarh International Airport in Mohaliare the two international airports of Punjab. Other airports in Punjab are:
Sahnewal Airport                                                                             
      All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways. The Grand Trunk Road, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata to Peshawar, passing through