central India. It is the 10th
largest state in India, with an area of 135,194 km2(52,199 sq mi). With a population
of 28 million, Chhattisgarh is the 17th most-populated state of the nation. It
is a source of electricity and steel for India, accounting for 15% of the totalsteelproduced
in the country. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.
The state was formed on 1
November 2000 by partitioning 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts
ofMadhya Pradesh. Raipurwas made its capital city.
Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest,Maharashtrain the southwest,Andhra Pradesh(East
Godavari District) in the south, Telangana(which includes eastern parts of old
Bhadrachalam constituency which was part of East Godavari District prior to
1956 and later added to Khammam district and most of which was retained by
Telangana after Andhra Pradesh's bifurcation in 2014) in the south,Odishain the east,Jharkhandin the northeast andUttar Pradeshin the north. Currently the state
comprises 27 districts.
There are several opinions as to the
origin of the nameChhattisgarh,
which in ancient times was known asDakshina
Kosala(South Kosala). "Chhattisgarh" was popularized later
during the time of theMaratha Empireand was first used in an official
document in 1795.
It is claimed that Chhattisgarh takes
its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area(chhattis—thirty-six" andgarh—fort). The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal
territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi,
Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora,
Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg,
Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh,
Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara. However, experts do not agree with this
explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region.
Another view, more popular with
experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form ofChedisgarhwhich meansRajor
the Chedis".In ancient time Chhattisgarh region was also part
of Chedi dynasty ofKaling,modernOdisha.In
medieval period up to arrival of 1803 major partion of present eastern
Chhattisgarh was part of Chauhan rulers of Hirakhand orSambalpurKingdom ofOdisha.
The northern and
southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertileplain. The highest point in the
state is theBailadila Range.Deciduousforestsof the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the
stateThe state animal is thevan
bhainsa, or wild water buffalo. The state bird is thepahari myna, or hill myna. The state
tree is theSal (Sarai)found in Bastar division.
Chhattisgarh has coverage of mostly 2-lane or 1-lane
roads which provides connectivity to major cities. 11 national highways passing
through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However most
national highways are in poor conditions and provides only 2-lanes for slow
moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper and not fully converted into
4-lane highway. This includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New,
163A New, 343 New, 930New. Other national highway includesNH 6,NH 16,NH 43,NH 12A,NH 78,NH 111,NH 200,NH 202,NH 216,NH 217,NH 221,NH30NH 930 NEW. Thestate
highwaysand major district roads constitute another network of
Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest
densities of National Highway in Central and South India (12.1 km/100,000
population) which is similar to the North Eastern state of Assam.
infrastructure in Chhattisgarh is small compared to other states.Swami
Vivekananda Airportin Raipur is its sole airport with
scheduled commercial air services.
The official language of the
state is Hindi and is used by non-rural population of the state. Chhattisgarhi,
adialectof Hindi language, is spoken and
understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh. Among other languages,Odiais widely spoken by a significant
number ofOdiapopulation in the eastern part of the
state.Telugu, Marathi is also spoken in
parts of Chhattishgarh. Chhattisgarhi was known as "Khaltahi" to the
surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" toOdiaspeakers.
gross state domestic product for 2010 is estimated atINR60,079crorein current prices. Theeconomyof Chhattisgarh has
grown rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of 11.49 per cent in GDP for
factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial
is ranked as the 17th largest tea production state in India. The districts of
Jashpur and Surguja are favorable tea production areas. In Jashpur district,
the first tea plantation, Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under
the direction of Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at
the Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram and
the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry department
has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara Ashram. In Surguja
district, a tea nursery is being developed by the Margdarshan Sansthan
Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja.
counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a
government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and
the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares. Horticulture and animal
husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state. About
80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the
villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.
The majority of the farmers are still practicing the
traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and
productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable
to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for
better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve the
is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India
Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the
productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers
are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as
subsistence agriculture till now.
Medicinal Rice of Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar
The main crops
are rice,maize, kodo-kutkiand other small millets
and pulses (tuar andkulthi);
oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans and sunflowers, are also
grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only
one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very
substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation
where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention
to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are
grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce
towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the
"rice bowl of central India".
Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in
Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi
Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net sown area.
Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest depends on rain. Of
the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the
Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area
available for double cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh plains and 2300
ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice
and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic
benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till
now, though agriculture is the main occupation of more than 80% of the
Chhattisgarh region about 22% of net cropped area was under irrigation as
compared to 36.5% in Madhya Pradesh in 1998-99, whereas the average national
irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation is characterized by a high order of
variability ranging from 1.6% in Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an
average growth trend in irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought
under irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.0% in
the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very low rate in
Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it would take about 122
years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated area in Chhattisgarh at the
present rate of growth.
Chhattisgarh has a limitedirrigationsystem, withdamsandcanalson some rivers. Average
rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under
the rice agroclimatic zone. Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly
affects the production of rice. Irrigation is the prime need of the state for
its overall development and therefore the state government has given top
priority to development of irrigation.
total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects have been
completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects are under
construction, as of 31 March 2006.
is one of the few states of India where the power sector is effectively developed.
Based on the current production of surplus electric power, the position of the
State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board
(CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new
state and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh provides electricity to
several other states because of surplus production.
In Chhattisgarh,National Thermal Power Corporation
hasSipat Thermal Power Stationwith a capacity of 2,980
MW at Sipat, Bilaspur; GMR Power in Tilda andKorba Super Thermal Power Stationwith a capacity of 2,600
MW at Korba, while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1,780 MW and hydel
capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private
generation units of large and small capacity. The state government has pursued
a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a
number of private players coming up.
The state has potential of 61,000 MW of additional
thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more
than 2,500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial additions
to the existing generation capacity are already under way.
industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel
Plant, Bhilai operated bySAIL, with a capacity of 5.4
million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the
state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy
units are in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and
Raigarh have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur has become the
center of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.
The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh was established by
Bharat Aluminium Company Limited, which has a capacity of around one million
tonnes each year.
Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area
(as per the latest report by theIndian Forest Service) and the
rich forest resources include wood, tendu leaves,honeyand lac. Approximately
3%is under very dense forest,25.97% is moderately dense,12.28% is open forest
and 0.09%is scrub
Flora of Kabirdham District
Indian Luna Moth in Chhattisgarh Forest
Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh Forest
is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's total cement produce. It
has the highest output of coal in the country with second highest reserves. It
is third in iron ore production and first in tin production.Limestone,dolomiteandbauxiteare abundant. It is the
onlytin-ore producing state in
India. Other commercially extracted minerals include corandum,garnet,quartz,marble,alexandriteanddiamonds.
Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh
Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh
recent years, Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information technology
(IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also promoting IT and has set
up a body to take care of the IT solutions. The body, known asCHIPS, is providing large IT
projects such as Choice, Swan, etc.
Major companies with a presence in the state include:
total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009-10. Nearly 75% of exports comes
from Bhilai and the remaining from Urla, Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major
exports products include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and
agri-products, iron, aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products.
CSIDC (Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the
nodal agency of the Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in the
situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and
attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare
wildlife, exquisitely carvedtemples,Buddhistsites,palaces,water falls,
caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus.
There are many Waterfalls, hot springs, caves, temples,
dams and National parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Chhattisgarh.
Chhattisgarh is a progressive state and
also the transport system here is fine, than expected.But repair of roads and administrative
infrastructure should be strengthened so, perhaps the growth rate will grow
Business transparency, friendly
cooperation, ultra efficiency, proper guidance and highest conclusion is our
We are indigenous 36 states 686 districts 5,93,731 fluent in villages, planned,
regular, economical and reliable pre-eminent service providers we have listed
revered. Transport business department of our organization because of its quality
is the pre-eminent place.
Business transparency, friendly cooperation, ultra efficiency, proper guidance and highest conclusion is our definition.
We are indigenous 36 states 686 districts 5,93,731 fluent in
villages, planned, regular, economical and reliable pre-eminent service
providers we have listed revered. Transport business department of our
organization because of its quality is the pre-eminent place.